The Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the Family is fast approaching and will be held in Rome on Oct. 5-19.
The preparatory document, Instrumentum Laboris, is an excellent place to start to understand the work of the event.
The Extraordinary Synod of Bishops is actually the first of two synods focused on the family, and in between there will be another major event dealing with the family.
After the extraordinary synod, the World Meeting of Families will be held in Philadelphia from Sept. 22-27, 2015. That event will be followed by the Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the Family, on Oct. 2-25, 2015, in Rome.
Typically, after an Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, the Pope issues a post-synodal apostolic exhortation on the synod's work.
The USCCB has some excellent resources to prepare for the upcoming events here.